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European PV Business Model Good Practices

The following are 18 factsheets of projects that the PV Financing Consortium has chosen to be good practices in terms of innovative business models for PV. All national partners were requested to identify some projects and to bring them forward. After a few of these projects were selected, Allianz Climate Solutions and FS-UNEP discussed each case with the national partners and filtered the most promising ones by comparison, according to criteria such as innovation, profitability, replicability. A total of 24 case studies were brought forward and 18 were selected. Criteria for choosing 18 out of 24 included the consortium definition of good and best practice:

Good practice: a project able to guarantee the expected returns using the planned business model and financing scheme.

Best practice: a good practice example makes use of an innovative solution in terms of business model or financing scheme as well as good practice examples that have potential of being replicable and/or scalable.

According to these definitions, best practices were selected first, and good practices were used only in case the number of best practices was not sufficient for an application segment. The geographical distribution of the projects has also been taken into account to avoid overexposure of a country vs. the other ones. In some cases the amount of cases per application segment was higher / lower than expected.

Single Family Homes

Wells Household (AT)

Oakapple (UK)

Multi Family Homes

Gelbes Viertel (DE)

Heidelberger Energiegenossenschaft (DE)

Domus Energethica (IT)

Shopping Centres

Soleil du Grand Ouest (FR)

Gran Plaza 2 (ES)


Large Office Buildings

Novomusica (ES)

Industrial Parks

Hitachi Rail (UK)

Kraftwerk (DE)

Ketton (UK)


L’Oreal (IT)

Savoie Technolac (FR)

Public Buildings

Malatya Inonul University (TK)

Retenergie (IT)

Vienna Technical University (AT)

Summary of the Interview Report on Financial Schemes

Download the Report (PDF)

The present document summarizes the interviews on financing schemes carried out in each of the seven countries included in the PV Financing project. The objective of the interviews was to understand the requirements for financing PV projects when applying different financing schemes. Equity investors as well as banks have been interviewed in order to include the point of view of different investor types. Where necessary, multipliers (e.g. PV installers) were consulted to obtain an insight on several of the schemes.

Business Model Reports

The following Business Model Reports present the structure of the business models researched in the Work Package 2 called “Best-suited PV business models by application segments”. Every paper describes besides the structure of the business models, the key information on the regulatory and economic environment in the six application segments: 1) Residential Single Houses; 2) Residential Multi-Family Houses; 3) Commercial Shopping Malls; 4) Commercial Large Office Buildings; 5) Public Educational Buildings; and 6) Industrial Parks.

The reports where developed in the framework of the project PV Financing in the following 7 countries:

Austria (PDF)

France (PDF)

Germany (PDF)

Italy (PDF)

Spain (PDF)

Turkey (PDF)

United Kingdom (PDF)

Intro and Glossary (PDF)

Fact Sheets

The “Fact-Sheets for Selected Financial Schemes” describes the key characteristics of the suitable financial schemes in the application segments and set them in context with the business models. The financial schemes described include: Loan (including Portfolio Financing and On Balance Sheet Financing), Crowdfunding, Self-funding, Leasing, Energy Cooperatives / Green Cooperatives, Green Bonds.

Introduction (PDF)

Austria (PDF)

France (PDF)

Italy (PDF)

Germany (PDF)

Spain (PDF)

Turkey (PDF)

United Kingdom (PDF)